Swiss (Suisse) and CURTA Slide Rules
(Manufacturers. Distrubutors and Countries not found in their own gallery)
This gallery is dedicated to slide rules and manufacturers located within Switzerland, and CURTA which was made in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein, a German speaking country, is located between Austria and Switzerland, and its only hand-held calculator manufacturer was CURTA, so it was placed here to fill out this gallery.
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Manufacturers included in this gallery: Billeter, National, CURTA, Kern, and Daemon-Schmid, Loga
National Rechenwalze, A.G. "System Billeter"
Originally: Julius Billeter Rechenwalze
Gallery includes specimen by son Ernest Billeter
Julius Billeter (1828 - 1914) made 'Rechenwalze' (Computing Rollers) cylindrical slide rules for the financial industry based on Billeter's 1894 patent. US Patent No. 513,172 January 23, 1894. French Patent No. 217,367 Nov. 10, 1891. Most of the designs were marked as "System Billeter".



National Rechenweize "System Billeter"
Modell No 20 - 1918 Cylindrical Slide Rule

ISRM 13.03.15.01



Carolina Radu, John And Walter

John William Radu
(1879-1944)

John William Radu with Crow

National Rechenweize System Billeter Modell No20 1918
Cylindrical Slide Rule (Computing Roller)

Made in Switzerland by National Rechenwalzen. Zurich, Switzerland. c1940,
Construction: Varnished paper scales on 20.5cm (8.12in) dia. x 57.3cm (22.5in) long metal cylinder and on sliding cylindrical cage. Metal support stand.
Scale: 80 sections of C & D scales equivalent to 20 meters (65.6 ft) in length.
As part of the artifact, the wooden box is present that it was shipped in when it was sent from Zurich to New York City in 1940.

Robert A. Ecker
This specimen was acquired from Robert Ecker of Long Valley, New Jersey, who owned and preserved this excellent math instrument for 60 years. Robert graduated from Brown '55 (mechanical engineer, tau beta pi); commissioned USAF, active duty Germany '57-'58 (missile guidance), reserve Capt. until '62 . Employed by ExxonMobil '56-'85, (refinery ops, supply planning, tanker design). Robert is a current ham radio operator (W2EKZ Amateur Extra), Robert A. Ecker expanded Biography
Robert writes: "It belonged to my grandfather, John William Radu (born 6/3/1879 in Poland or Romania, and died in Manhattan 6/4/1944.. He lived in Rochester, NY where he graduated from the University of Rochester and later moved to New York, NY. He was a many talented person designing and building medical instruments for his own company and teaching at well known technical Stuyvesant High School in New York. He built telescopes, collected minerals, conceived magic tricks for Howard Thurston, collected clocks and music boxes, and must have been a very interesting person. I was only 11 when he died but remember him showing me his collection of fluorescent minerals under a black light."
A record search shows that he attended U of R between 1903-1908 and that he had his own company, as General Manager of Radu Surgical Instrument Co. during the same time from 1907-1911. Then he was superintendant of the German Insurance Building, in Rochester, starting in 1911. In 1920 he was approved to be an assistance teacher (Instrument making) for high schools and appointed to Stuyvesant (NY Times Jan 30,1920).One can see why he liked this slide rule. More info on his career was in a donation to UofR in 1947 in his name that shows a more detailed work history (see attached). There is a reference that he married Clara Louise Coit who was an Alumnae class of 1897 Elmira College. She was Robert Ecker's Mother's Mother.


REF Billeter Rechenwalze 4M Cylindrical Slide Rule
Billeter Rechenwalze 4M Cylindrical Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by Julius Billeter. Zurich, Switzerland c1900,
Construction: Varnished paper scales on 5-cm dia. metal cylinder and on metal vanes on a sliding cylindrical sleeve. Wood support stand
Scale: 20 rows of C & D scales equivalent to 4 meters in length
Note: This is an early example matching Billeter's 1894 patent. Later examples carry "National Rechenwalze - System Billeter"
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection


REF National Rechenwalzen System Billeter Modell No8 Cylindrical Slide Rule
National Rechenwalzen System Billeter Modell No8 Cylindrical Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by National Rechenwalzen. Zurich, Switzerland c1900,
Construction: Varnished paper scales on metal cylinder (8 cm dia. x 16 cm long) and on metal vanes on a sliding cylindrical sleeve. Metal support stand.
Scale: 40 rows of C & D scales equivalent to 8 meters in length.
Note: Formerly Julius Billeter Rechenwalze. Frequently used by European banks and accounting offices.
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection


REF National Rechenwalzen System Billeter Modell No16 Cylindrical Slide Rule
National Rechenwalzen System Billeter Modell No16 Cylindrical Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by National Rechenwalzen. Zurich, Switzerlan c1910,
Construction: Varnished paper scales on 16cm dia. x 36.5cm long metal cylinder and on metal vanes on a sliding cylindrical sleeve. Metal support stand.
Scale: 80 rows of C & D scales equivalent to 16 meters in length.
Note: Formerly Julius Billeter Rechenwalze. This cylindrical slide rule has a metal support stand that could be wall mounted. Frequently used by European banks and accounting offices.
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection


REF National Rechenwalze System Billeter Modell No20 1918 Cylindrical Slide Rule
National Rechenwalze System Billeter Modell No20 1918 Cylindrical Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by National Rechenwalzen. Zurich, Switzerlan. Alleinige Fabrikanten, Switzerland c1920,
Construction: Varnished paper scales on 20.5cm dia. x 57cm long metal cylinder and on sliding cylindrical cage. Metal support stand.
Scale: 80 sections of C & D scales equivalent to 20 meters in length.
Note: Formerly Julius Billeter Rechenwalze. This cylindrical slide rule has a metal support stand that could be wall mounted. Commonly used by European banks for currency trading. This is a previously unknown size. The largest previously known National cylindrical slide rule had a 16-m scale length.
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection


REF Ernst Billeter Circular Slide Rule
Ernst Billeter Circular Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by Ernst Billeter. Zurich, c1905,
Construction: 12.4cm dia.; varnished paper scales on hard board disks; nested disk type; metal ring at outside edge; turning knob for inner disk on the back
Scale: C & D scales equivalent to 4 meters in length.
Note: Ernst Billeter was Julius Billeter's brother and was a witness on his patent.
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection


CURTA Calculator
Contina AG Mauren, Liechtenstein

Notes: See Wikipedia Entry on Curta Calculators
1) Austrian Curt Herzstark designed this calculator while imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp during WWII. Soon after the war, Herzstark established a factory in Liechtenstein with the backing of the Prince of Liechtenstein. The device, a very small and highly sophisticated calculating machine, was based on Leibniz's stepped drum concept. Herzstark called his invention "Curta", a name he had wanted to give the daughter he never had.
2)Production was started at April 1, 1947. In 1966 CONTINA AG was bought by the firm HILTI AG in Schaan. Production was stopped on November 1970. CURTAs were sold until early 1973. There are +/- 80000 Curta I and +/- 60000 Curta II machines. Curt Herzstark heard 150,000 to 160,000, maybe even more CURTAs were manufactured.


CURTA Type I

ISRM 11.10.25.01
CURTA Type I sn20141 (Mfg'd January 1953)
Made in Liechtenstein, Designed by Curt Herzstark
The Type I Curta has 8 digits for data entry (known as "setting sliders"), a 6-digit revolution counter, and an 11-digit result counter.
.
Owned by Ward B. Anthony (1938-2012), Littleton, Colorado. Provided by his son Russell Anthony
Ward was an aerospace engineer at Martin Marietta in Littleton, Colorado and worked on many of the launch systems. He used this CURTA in his profession as well as while competing in car rallye's. He was an avid sailor and off-road motorcyclist as well as a proficient wood-worker.
Instructions (370Kb PDF)

More Information at The CURTA Page



REF CURTA Type II (Metal Body)

CURTA Type II (Metal Body)
Made in Liechtenstein, Designed by Curt Herzstark
The larger Type II Curta, introduced in 1954, has 11 digits for data entry (known as "setting sliders"), an 8-digit revolution counter, and a 15-digit result counter.
Archive - Photo courtesy of The CURTA Page


REF CURTA Type II (Plastic Body)

CURTA Type II (Plastic Body)
Made in Liechtenstein, Designed by Curt Herzstark
The larger Type II Curta, introduced in 1954, has 11 digits for data entry (known as "setting sliders"), an 8-digit revolution counter, and a 15-digit result counter.
Archive - Photo courtesy of The CURTA Page

Kern & Co. Aarau, Suisse



REF Kern Stadia Surveyor's Slide Rule
Kern Stadia Surveyor's Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by Kern & Co. Aarau, Suisse
Closed body - Steel stock and cursor
Front Scale
D, D [ X, Sin-Cos, TG. ] F-R
Cursor: 0-100 veneer scale
Archive - Tom dilatush Collection


REF Kern Stadia Surveyor's Slide Rule
Kern Stadia Surveyor's Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland by Kern & Co. Aarau, Suisse
Closed body - Aluminum stock and cursor
Front Scale
Dist. Feet, Dist Miles [ Vertical Angles ] Diff. Elev. Part, Correction in Feet For Curvature.
Archive - David Ingram Collectionwww.surveyhistory.org

LOGA
Daemon-Schmid, Zurich, Switzerland



REF Daemen-Schmid (Loga) 24 meter cylindrical
Daemen-Schmid (Loga) 24 meter cylindrical
Made in Switzerland by Daemon-Schmid 1915-1920
Paper faced aluminum drum
CD (100-1000) scales divided into 60 segments for a total length of 24 meter
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection
Galai Photo.


Ref Loga Calculator (Daemen-Schmid) 15 meter cylindrical
Loga Calculator (Daemen-Schmid) 15 meter cylindrical
Made in Switzerland by Daemon-Schmid


ISRM Loga (Daemen-Schmid) 7.5 meter cylindrical
Loga (Daemen-Schmid) 7.5 meter cylindrical
Made in Switzerland by Daemon-Schmid c1930


REF Loga (Daemen-Schmid) 7.5 meter cylindrical
Daemen-Schmid (Loga) 7.5 meter cylindrical
Made in Switzerland by Daemon-Schmid c1930
Archive - Ed Chamberlain Collection


ISRM Loga (Daemen-Schmid) 2.5 meter cylindrical
Daemen-Schmid (Loga) 2.5 meter cylindrical
Made in Switzerland by Daemon-Schmid c1930
Archive - Herman's Slide Rule Catalogue


REF Loga Slide Rule
Loga Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland - Paper and metal backing
Front Scale:
Zz(K1), A [ B, R, C ] D, Zz(K2)
Back Scale:
A [ B, R ] C, Currency Conversions
Archive Herman van Herwijnen's Slide Rule Catalogue


REF Loga Pocket Slide Rule
Loga Pocket Slide Rule
Made in Switzerland - Paper and metal backing
Front Scale:
K, A [ B, R, C ] D, Log
Back Scale:
A [ B, R ] C, Currency Conversions
Archive Herman van Herwijnen's Slide Rule Catalogue

Swiss Slide Rules on the World Market
by Heinz Joss

Note: Google was used to translate from the Swiss language and the ISRM curator provided additional editing.

In Switzerland, only a few brands have gained international recognition: The Company Billeter, Daemen-Schmid, later renamed Loga, and National. In all presented the computing rollers in Billeter and Loga is also the disc calculators, focuses on production and export, with these two models, they occupied a niche market, and held their ground against the major foreign manufacturers whose focus was in the production of slide rules. Loga alone claims to have produced tens of thousands of computing rolls and sold around the world. - Was it a coincidence that these producers all had their base in the Zurich area, or was it a consequence of the importance of Zurich in the areas of trade, technology and science?

My collectors and researchers of recent years has led to me today dozens of names of Swiss people and companies are known to have developed a slide rule or manufactured. Of international importance, however, were only mentioned the Zurich brand.

7 From the history of the Zurich computing roller manufacturer

7.1 The Company Zurich Billeter and National

In posthumous works from the estate of the family Billeter is the silk factory Julius Billeter (1828 - 1914) boards,-as the inventor of computer discs and rollers mentioned, these inventions are dated to the period from 1879 to 1885.

Computing boards are a scarcely known another form of the slide rule: About a logarithmic scale, arranged in many short, parallel and overlapping sections for calculation is a glass plate with the same logarithmic scale units shifted horizontally and vertically. The calculation table is the direct ancestor of computing roll. Calculation sheets of Bille Planters production remained of my knowledge, only two received; their appearance and operation is also known from patents.

Julius Billeter founded in 1888 in Zurich a computing rolling mill, the first Swiss factory, which specialized in slide rule. Julius' son Ernst Billeter (1858 - 1941) left enter in 1912 the company in the commercial register, then he led the company with his brother Max 1917, they disbanded.

1916 Bernard Rubinstein founded in Zurich, the company «National computing rolling-stock company", and nothing is known about him. In 1917 he resigned from the company, responsible for the nation was now Max Billeter (1890 - 1967). In 1934, she was, after 18 years of service, closed.

1921, four years after the dissolution of the Ernst Billeter & Co., the company of his sons Ernst jun. and Max, and five years after the founding of the National raking drums AG, which is now run by son Max, the 63-year-old father of Ernst Billeter ventured again a new beginning: He founded the company "Ernst Billeter-Bossert, fabrication of computing rolls and lightning calculators" , the company existed until 1942 (Fig. 3).

Of the business of the Company and the National Billeter-little is known. Only in the years 1937 to 1941 handwritten drafts of letters from Ernst Billeter are obtained that show the sale of computer discs and rollers to many countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, England, France, Ireland, Italy, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria , Poland, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and the United States are mentioned. Among the regulars dominated companies in the textile industry (from the Billeter it myself came), but also banks, government, insurance, etc. to have the disc calculators and rolls served and office equipment dealers were supplied as a middleman. As of 1941, the foreign relations of the 2nd According went World War lost, and the business fell asleep.

Of the products of the Company and National Billeter only a few specimens have been preserved. Known computing boards, discs and rolls of Billeter, National, however, are only raking drums.

7.2 The Company Zurich Daemen-Schmid and Loga

(1856 - 1934) In 1896, the textile merchant Henry Daemen-Schmid emigrated from the then Prussian Rhineland in Switzerland and settled in Zurich-Unterstrass. In a garret in Zurich in 1900, he built raking drums, the oldest surviving examples bear next to his name, the words "reconstruction after Julius Billeter," it was so obviously introduced intellectual property of Julius Billeter in Daemen-Schmid's production.

1903 Daemen-Schmid moved to Zurich-Oerlikon, where he set up a specialized construction workshop with its own lithography and Gravierabteilung, as he announced proudly. In 1911, he moved his company headquarters to Uster, with a repeated extension of the production unit. The company Henry Daemen-Schmid was changed in 1915 in the commercial register in Loga, Loga the term has been used, however, on the products available from around the 1903rd

Henry Daemen-Schmid had nine children, most of them were either in the company or in related fields working Loga (trade with computing devices of all kinds). Permanent Familienzwistigkeiten but resulted in ever new constellations in the relations between themselves and the Daemen in and to the company Loga.

Henry Daemen-Schmid was the all-powerful father of both the family and the company. After his death in 1934, took over some of the Father completely estranged sons of the company, which was in a serious economic crisis. A trust company, the attention of the shareholders - all members of the family Daemen - the situation was assessed liquidated, the goodwill on the scrap value of the machines. In the early 1970s, after a brief flight of the Loga but again fell into financial difficulties. 1979 was the final out: The lack of a second pillar was the company's downfall.

The production of the company Henry Daemen-Schmid and Loga included slide rules, disc calculators raking drums. The calculation were rolling up to the 1930s the predominant business. In an old brochure mentions that already 30,000 Logawalzen would be in use, is in a different "There are probably 1922 hardly a major bank in Budapest, Vienna, Berlin, Paris, London and New York, which does not exchange roll the Ustermer served ". It was in the 1920s, even given a manufacturing and sales subsidiary in Berlin. In the 1930s, the change in production of computers began rolling on computer disks (Fig. 4 and 5).

7.3 Billeter / National and Heinrich Daemen-Schmid/Loga:

Similarities and relationships

To date, there is no clarity as to whether the two companies has ever passed a couples relationship.

Strikingly, however, are certain similarities. So were both founders (or Heinrich Julius Billeter Daemen-Schmid) textile experts. Both sides alleged that the beginning of the activity in the area of ??the slide rule had been the year 1888, which in either case can not be proven. Both were active in the region of Zurich. While we think to remember the family Billeter, Henry Daemen-Schmid had once been an employee of Billeter, which is in the family Daemen unknown.

Both Julius Billeter and Henry Daemen-Schmid have been posing as the inventor of the computer roll and were later referred to by their offspring as such. Ernst Billeter has also decorated with this attribute. Apparently all a patent on a computer was enough rolling detail in order to feel a degree of calculation inventor roll as such.

Cylindrical slide rule but are mentioned in the literature before 1888, so that neither Daemen-Schmid Billeter still can be regarded as the inventor of the computer roll, but they have contributed to improvements of this device.

The time probably best-informed expert on the slide scene, the Switzerland-Americans Florian Cajori (originally Cajöri), Professor of History of Mathematics and Dean of the University of California, mentioned both 1919 Julius Billeter and Henry Daemen-Schmid and their raking drums. In any relationship between the two Cajori but points not, as a contemporary he would have been aware of it.

7.4 Other names slide from the Zurich area

The Zurich astronomer, physicist and mathematician Johann Kaspar Horner (1774 - 1834) developed a slide rule with scale length, probably a divided scale. Has yet been no object has been found. - Horner was also admirable supporter of Schwyzers Felix Donat Kyd (1793 - 1869), who taught himself probably mass-produced the first Swiss slide rules, they also are not obtained, but a detailed description.

Leonhard Pestalozzi (1786 - 1864), banker, financial and monetary politician has tinkered for personal needs one slide rule for currency conversion. Although this unit has only served him myself, it has made in the slide rule literature. Also, this bar is not preserved.

Karl Culmann (1821 - 1881), professor at the ETH in Zurich devoted, in his famous "Graphic Statics" a chapter of the slide rule, the time apparently were not very common in Switzerland.

Ludwig von Tetmajer, he was a professor at ETH, the initiator of a reprint of Culmanns "Graphic Statics", he added, while the slide-section and was therefore also in the history of slide rules.

Hans Heinrich Peter (1875 - 1931) was the inventor of a double logarithmic scale computing staff with tachymetric that he let himself finished first, but later figured the system as Peter in offering Nestler.

Silvio Masera from Winterthur 1902 received a patent for a slide rule with continuous-scale band, and he wanted to give the advantages of the slide rule slide rule, the scale self-contained. Whether his slide rule ever built is not known, at any rate, no such bar was found.

GG Wilhelm Weber, Zurich, was a manufacturer of a slide rule topographic system Hofer & Brönnimann.

Walter Schaad, Zurich received in 1921 a patent for a slide rule with two Mantissenskalen, with its help, and can be added subtracted what logarithmic slide rules otherwise can not really.

A company Emil Pfenninger & Co. in Zurich was either itself a manufacturer of slide rules or has acted with such a still unidentified manufacturer.

Jacob Huber, Winterthur and Zurich, received in 1923 a patent for data slider. His company Normus has become internationally known for its sliding tables. They were not real computer, but offered for very specific purposes to be known figures as systematized work help.

Approximately of the same period comes a little slide rule Auto Meter P. Landis, Automobiles, in Zurich. Its purpose was to convert between performance determined sizes of car engines (Fig. 6).

At the end of the 2nd World War II, as one might assume, the technical development of the calculation of the rod and slide rule had been completed, the Zurich engineer Walter Hiltpold came up with a new design, a semi-circular disc on the market (Figure 7). His tragic early death, it is due to well that the idea could not enforce.

A slide rule of Rieter Textile, Winterthur is known.

Zellweger Uster AG has released a circular slide rule on the so-called Smith chart. Zellweger Uster genannnt today, has further made textile grade rods and discs for customers.

Still available, the hydro-slide rule of George Kisseleff Küsnacht / ZH (Fig. 8).

The watch company Ventura Design on Time in Volketswil Zurich may be the only company that still today produces slide rule, namely calculation watches, designed by Zurich designer Hannes Wettstein.

8 sources and literature

Jezierski, D. of. 1997 (2nd edition) 2000. Slide rule, a documentary - self-publishing, stone b. Nuremberg 110, pp.

Joss H., 1998. Measurement Computing: 350 years slide rules - Elem. Math, Vol 53, 73-78

Joss, and H. 1998 (2nd edition) 2000. Swiss slide in the global market: The Company and National Billeter and Daemen-Schmid and Loga. 4th in " International Meeting of Slide Rule Collectors, conference report "- H. Joss, pp. 49 - pp. self-publishing, Dällikon, 90 - 58.

Joss, and H. 1998 (2nd edition) 2000. Swiss people, companies and brands from the past and present of the slide rule. 4th in " International Meeting of Slide Rule Collectors, conference report "- H. Joss, pp. 59 - pp. self-publishing, Dällikon, 90 - 66.

Joss H 2000th History of the slide rule - SI + A, 116 Pp. Vol. 356 - 363

Joss H., 2000. Computing rollers slide with the long scale. First in " Symposium on the development of computing technology "- WH Schmidt and W. Girbardt, pp. 11-33 - Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald, 120 pp.

Joss H., 2000. A Tablet Slide Rule by Julius Billeter - the Journal of the Oughtred Society, Vol 9, No. 2, p. 27th

Schoeck Grüebler, E. 1998, (2nd edition) 2000. Felix Donat Kyd, a Swiss protagonist of the slide rule. 4th in " International Meeting of Slide Rule Collectors, conference report "- H. Joss, pp. 23 - pp. self-publishing, Dällikon, 90 - 30.

Wirz, P., 1998, (2nd edition) 2000. The semi-circular disc calculators Walter Hiltpold. 4th in " International Meeting of Slide Rule Collectors, conference report "- H. Joss, pp. 39 - 48 - self-published, Dällikon, 90 pp.

Copyright © 2001 by Heinz Joss Dällikon

Author's address:
Heinz Joss, Certified. Architect ETH / SIA
Rain Ring 4
CH-8108 Dällikon
e-mail: ana_log[]gmx.ch


Copyright © 2003-2012 International Slide Rule Museum
IA
Rain Ring 4
CH-8108 Dällikon
e-mail: ana_log[]gmx.ch

Copyright © 2003-2012 International Slide Rule Museum